Most of what I've learned about photography has been self taught and through hands on experience. I think one of the best ways to improve is through practice. Just like a musician, the more you practice, the more the instrument (or camera) becomes an extension of your hands. The musician doesn't need to think about what to do with his fingers while playing a song. Likewise, the experienced photographer doesn't need to think about camera settings very much while making exposures.
I also find that participating in online photography forums and reading photography books and magazines can be very helpful in the learning process. I participated in three photography workshops in recent years, including ones led by Moose Peterson, Joe McNally, Raymond Barlow and Steve Gettle. Kelby Training is another excellent online training resource that I've found helpful for learning more about photography and post processing.
Since I didn't have formal training in photography, I decided to complete the New York Institute of Photography's "The Complete Course in Professional Photography". Completing this comprehensive correspondence course made me more comfortable that my understanding of photography is on the right track.